One of my favorite tools is the Matrix search engine by ITA Software. Nearly every search I do starts with ITA thanks to its flexible display options and advanced routing language. I know many experienced travelers enjoy using KVS Tool and ExpertFlyer, which I’ll cover later, but ITA comes first because it is one of the most useful free tools and shares many of the same basic features.
Even if you’re already familiar with ITA, I’ll describe some of its advanced routing language in later posts this week. I apologize for a long post today, but this may be your first time using this interface, which has a few tricks up its sleeve.
In today’s post, I will show you how to use ITA for a simple trip from Seattle (SEA) to Washington Dulles (IAD) over Presidents’ Day weekend. A large variety of options exist on this route, everything from non-stop on United to choices with two or three connections. We’ll start out easy before getting picky about carriers.
Taking a look at ITA’s home page, most of the entries are self-explanatory. You could enter “SEA” in the departure field and “IAD” in the destination field. If you select “Search exact dates” you can enter 2/17/17 and 2/20/17 for the outbound and return, departing on those days only. Ignore everything else for now, too, and press “Search.”
Three Ways to Display Search Results on ITA Matrix
Like most online search tools such as Orbitz or Kayak, there is a bar at the top of the results page with the lowest fares available on different carriers, sorted by the number of stops. Clicking on a name will give you only that carrier, and clicking on a price will give you only flights on that carrier at that fare. These are “all-in” fares, so you don’t have to worry about hidden taxes added later.
Below the bar, the default option is to display results as “Complete trips.” The information displayed in the complete trip format is easy to understand—departure and arrival times, stops, cautionary advisories such as red-eyes or short connections. The lowest fare appears to be $317 on Alaska Airlines (AS). Some options on United or a mix of carriers are available at $325 and up. Even more options are outside the screen capture.
In this case things worked out well. There are a couple options at the lowest fare, and a non-stop option is only slightly higher. Depending on your airline preferences and how much you want to avoid that connection, the difference is fairly negligible. But when things don’t go so well, the problem I often find with viewing complete trips is that there are so many combinations of outbound and return.
I have faced situations where non-stop options just didn’t exist and where the connection could be in any of five different cities. Fares for most options were very close together, but the ideal times and connecting city were $20 more, not a a lot but enough to push them back to page three. How many times do you look at every page of the results?
Choosing “Individual flights” will give you another list, but this time you have the chance to select just your outbound flight before continuing and selecting the return option. At the very top there is now a light brown box that lists your selected flight for each day. You can skip ahead and pick your return flight first, then go back to the outbound flight if you prefer.
At all times the price you see is the lowest possible all-in fare, not the price for that individual leg, and unless you’ve already limited your airline choices, you are only picking the carrier for that particular option.
Also, picking your flights one at a time means that while you are looking at an all-in fare, you may be forced to pick only one very bad option for the other flight in order to get that promised price. Other options could cost a little or a lot more. This isn’t any more expensive than searching by “complete trips,” it just means that you could get the lowest price with two bad options, a higher price with two good options, or something in between.
My favorite view option is “Time bars,” in which each flight is displayed as a bar from takeoff to landing. Options with connections are obvious because they have a two colored bars with a grey connection bar in between and an airport code telling you where you get to hang out for an hour or two. Hover over any colored or grey bar to get more information about the flight details or the connection.
Quickly Viewing Trip Details with Time Bars
At any time you can hover over a flight to get more information about it, including flight number, times, aircraft, cabin class, and booking class (a separate topic I’ll discuss in a future post). Hover over the grey connection if it’s too short to see which airport it is. You’ll notice that each flight has an airline code telling you who is marketing the flight.
However, if it’s a codeshare flight operated by a different airline, there will be an asterisk and hovering will also tell you who the operating carrier is. In the screen capture above, There are two Alaska Airlines flights, but the first is operated by Alaska (for $317) and the second is a codeshare operated by another airline (for $473). You might see that several carriers all operate a flight at the same time. These aren’t three different flights, it’s just that the carriers are marketing codeshares for a single flight operated by one carrier.
I’ll continue this walkthrough using time bars. Because more customers fly United than Alaska, I’ll pick United Airlines even though the price is slightly more expensive. Flight UA 1921 connects to UA 652 in Denver for a potential fare of $451.
Notice that when I get to my return flight options, United is still at the top of the list. But that doesn’t always happen. I might find, for example, that the only way to pay $451 is to fly United one way and Delta on the way back. Perhaps United will charge me $600 to fly them both ways. Fortunately that didn’t happen this time, but remember that you can use the airline filters at the top if you care about flying on the same carrier for the full whole itinerary.
$451 is still the lowest possible fare, displayed in orange. I will pay more if I pick one of the other options. Also note that for $9 more I could connect on the return journey instead of flying non-stop. Depending on the airline you fly and the loyalty program you use, traveling a longer distance could mean earning extra miles or a better chance of a complimentary upgrade.
Examining Fare Construction on ITA Matrix
After choosing an option for each leg of your journey you’ll see the complete itinerary and fare. For this trip, I would pay $450.70. Clicking the link to “View itinerary and fare details” will show how the fare was constructed, including base fare ($251.16 outbound and $133.95 return) and various taxes and fees.
Despite this detailed information, you cannot buy the ticket from ITA. This is only an example of what is available. Use an online travel agency or the airline’s own website to complete the purchase. (Hipmunk is beginning to integrate many features from ITA and does let you click through to book an itinerary.) Some light grey text at the bottom labeled “Fare construction” may be helpful if you have a complex itinerary and want to forward this to a travel agent.
Novice travel hackers are probably wondering, What’s the point?! You already know how to search for flights on United’s website or on Orbitz, and now I’m telling you that you have to do that anyway?
Well, I find other travel websites pretty distracting with all their ads and links to other services they offer. ITA is cleaner and easier to use. It also has some flexible display options like the time bars. Airline sites are often worse than OTAs. I have found fares on ITA that I could not replicate on United or elsewhere without being very specific about my dates and time of travel—which, of course, I only knew from using ITA first. Most importantly, ITA doesn’t sell you anything, so it’s only objective is to provide great results.
There are many advanced features available only from ITA for narrowing your search results for complicated queries. The kind you might use for mileage running, fuel dumping, or when trying to find the cheapest flight to any of several vacation ideas during spring break. I’m starting you out easy to make sure you get the basics. But I promise you’ll see just how useful ITA can be by the end of the week. Until then, try playing around with it and see what you can learn on your own.